Langston Hughes - The Life, Instances, Works as Properly as Influence of a Versatile African-American Author

Langston Hughes stands as a literary and cultural translation of the political resistance and marketing campaign of black consciousness leaders similar to Martin Luther King to revive the rights of black folks, thereby fulfilling the ethos of the American Dream celebrated round February every year in April.

Hughes overwhelming sense of social and cultural objective, certain to his understanding of the previous, current, and way forward for the Black America, commends his life and ministry as a lot to study to encourage us to maneuver ahead and our steps to tell and information how we transfer ahead to create an ideal future.

Hughes can also be vital, as he appears to have overstretched the genres: poetry, drama, novel, and critique, leaving an indelible mark on each area. At 21, he printed in all 4 (4) areas. For he at all times thought-about himself an artist with phrases, who would enterprise into each area of literary creativity, for there have been readers for whom a narrative meant greater than a poem or lyrics greater than a narrative, and Hughes needed to succeed in that particular person his type

Above all, he thought-about himself a poet. He needed to be a poet who might relate in poetry to the issues of his people who could possibly be learn with out formal training or intensive literary backgrounds. Nonetheless, Hughes wrote and directed dozens of quick tales, together with a dozen books for kids, a narrative from the Nationwide Affiliation for the Promotion of Coloured Peoples (NAACP), two volumes of autobiography, opera libretti, lyrics and so forth. Hughes was pushed by a pure religion in his versatility and the ability of his craft.

Hughes' dedication to Africa was actual and concrete in each phrases and deeds, and the very fact of his Negro sobriety (albeit with mild complexes) made him need to problem these on the opposite facet of the colour line who reject it:

My outdated man is a white outdated man

And my outdated mom is black

My outdated mom died in a pleasant massive home

My madman died in a hut

I'm wondering the place I'll die

Neither know nor be black?

His seek for his roots was stimulated when Hughes met in 1923 and heard how Marcus Garvey admonished Negroes to return to Africa to flee the wrath of the white man. Hughes then turned one of many poets who believed to really feel the beating of the jungle toms within the pulse of the Negro. Their verse took on a nostalgic temper, and a few even imagined that they'd incorporate the rhythm of African dance and music of their verse, as we might really feel when studying this poem: "Danse Africaine & # 39; :

The deep beating of the toms,

The gradual beating of the toms,

Low ... gradual

Sluggish ... low -

Stir your blood

Dance!

A lady with night time veil

Swirl gently into one

Circle of sunshine.

Whirls softly ... slowly,

Hughes was born in 1902 in Joplin, Missouri, and grew up in Lawrence, Kansas and Lincoln, Illinois. He then attended highschool in Cleveland, Ohio, the place he was a part of a small group of black folks, but with whom he was deeply related from early in his life. Though he got here from a revered household, his childhood was interrupted by the separation of his mother and father not lengthy after his beginning. His father then emigrated to Mexico, the place he hoped to achieve the success he had missed in America. He had hoped that his pores and skin coloration would play much less of a job in figuring out his future in Mexico. There he broke new floor. He had enterprise success and lived there the remainder of his life as a rich lawyer and landowner.

In distinction, Hughes' mom lived in transition for black moms who typically left their son within the care of their mom in search of a job.

His maternal grandmother, Mary Langston, whose first husband had died as a member of John Brown's band at Harpers Ferry, and whose second husband (Hughes grandfather) had additionally been a militant abolitionist. In Hughes, above all, a way of devotion instilled. Hughes lived consecutively with family and family in Kansas.

One other necessary household determine was John Mercer Langston, a brother of Hughes & # 39; s grandfather, who was one of many 19th century's best-known black People.

Hughes later joined his mom, though she was now in Cleveland, Ohio together with his new stepfather. On the identical time, Hughes struggled with a way of devastation, aided by the neglect of his mother and father. He himself remembered that early on he was pushed by his loneliness "to books and the great world in books". He was disillusioned together with his father's materialistic values ​​and the contemptuous perception that blacks, Mexicans and Indians had been lazy and ignorant.

At Central Excessive College, Hughes was excellent academically in addition to athletically. He wrote poetry and quick tales for the varsity's literary journal and edited the varsity yearbook. He returned to Mexico, the place he briefly taught English and wrote poetry and prose for publication in The Disaster, the NAACP journal.

Together with his father's assist, he arrived in New York in 1921 to allegedly attend Columbia College, but it surely was actually Harlem to see. One in every of his best poems, "The Negro speaks of Rivers", was simply printed within the disaster. His expertise was instantly found, although he solely had one 12 months in Columbia, the place he did properly, however by no means felt properly.

He was uncovered to bigotry on campus. He was assigned the worst dorm due to its coloration. All he might endure was instructing English literature. As a substitute of attending classes that bored him, he commonly ran reveals, lectures, and readings sponsored by the American Socialist Society. It was then that he was first launched to the laughter and the ache, starvation and ache of blues music. It was the nightlife and tradition that attracted him to school. These candy, unhappy blues songs caught on him the extraordinary ache and longing he noticed round him, which he integrated into poetry like The Weary Blues.

As a way to assert himself as a poet and to assist his mom, Hughes took turns serving as a florist's supply man; a vegetable grower and a large number on a ship on the Hudson River. As a part of a industrial steamship crew, he sailed to Africa. Then he traveled the identical technique to Europe, the place he jumped Ship in Paris to work for a number of months in a nightclub kitchen after which to hike to Italy.

In 1924, his poetry, which he had been engaged on all this time, confirmed the robust affect of blues and jazz. His poem, "The Weary Blues," which greatest exemplifies this affect, sparked off his profession by successful First Prize within the Poetry Division of the 1925 Literature Competitors of Alternative journal and successful one other literary prize within the Disaster.

This landmark, the primary of any poet to make use of this primary blues form, is a part of a band of the identical identify whose complete assortment displays the raging environment of Harlem nightlife. Most of his alternatives, similar to The Weary Blues, are roughly in step with the phrasing and rhythm of blues music, a style that turned widespread within the early 1920s with rural and concrete blacks. On this and different items like "Jazzonia", Hughes evoked the frenzied hedonistic and glittering environment of Harlem's well-known nightclubs. Poems of social commentary like "Mom to Son" present how robust the blacks should be to face the myriad hurdles they face in life.

Curiously, Hughes earliest influences as a mature poet got here from white poets. We have now Walt Whitman, the person who, by means of his inventive violations of historic conventions of poetry, has opened the boundaries of poetry to new types similar to free verse. There may be additionally the extremely populist white German emigre Carl Sandburg, who, because the "guiding star" of Hughes, led decisively to free verse and a radically democratic modernist aesthetic

However the black poet Paul Laurence Dunbar, a grasp of each the dialect and the usual verse, and Claude McKay, the black radical socialist, a Jamaican emigre who additionally wrote savvy poetry, stood for him because the embodiment of the cosmopolitan, but racially assured and devoted the black poet Hughes hoped to be. He was additionally older black literary figures like W.E.B. Dubois and James Weldon Johnson, who admired his work and helped him. NETWORK. Dubois' assortment of pan-African essays Souls of Black People has significantly influenced many black writers similar to Hughes, Richard Wright and James Baldwin.

Such color-affirming photographs and sensations as with "folks": The night time is gorgeous, / The faces of my folks and in "Dream Variations: Evening come tenderly" / Black like me. He cherished his work with a lot of African People, for whom he was captivated with writing.

Hughes had at all times proven his dedication to experiment as a poet and never slavishly comply with the tyranny of dense verse types and actual rhymes. He appeared, like Watts Whitman and Carl Sandburg, to desire to jot down verses that captured the realities of the American language as "poetic diction" and tuned his ear particularly to the range of the black American language.

"Weary Blues" combines these numerous parts with the same old language of unusual folks, jazz and blues music, and the normal types of poetry tailored to African American and American themes. In his adaptation of conventional poetic types, first to jazz after which to blues, typically with dialect, however radically completely different from earlier writers, Hughes was good at early experimentation with a free type of rhyme that always led to an creative rhythmic free verse appropriate :

Ma a Ma child

I've two choices

Two methods to earn cash!

Much more radical experiments with the blues kind led to his subsequent assortment, Superb Garments to the Jew. Maybe his best single verse, together with a number of ballads, was the least favorable of Superb Garments.

A number of reviewers in black newspapers and magazines had been tormented by Hughes's fearless and "distasteful" elicitation of parts of the black subculture, together with their typically uncooked eroticism, which had by no means earlier than been handled in earnest poetry.

Hughes expressed his dedication to jot down about such folks and experiment with blues and jazz, wrote in his essay "The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain." Printed in 1926 within the nation

"We youthful artists ... need to categorical our particular person dark-skinned self with out worry or disgrace. If white individuals are completely satisfied, we're completely satisfied. If they aren't, it doesn't matter. We all know that we're lovely and likewise ugly. & # 39;

Hughes expressed his dedication to fearlessly, shamelessly and uninterestingly write in regards to the black life within the decrease class and the folks, though they had been towards it. He practiced plenty of freedom experimenting with each blues and jazz.

Tom Tom is crying and Tom Tom is laughing. If colourful individuals are completely satisfied, we're completely satisfied. If they aren't, their displeasure doesn't matter. We construct our temples for tomorrow, robust as we all know, and we stand on the mountains, free in ourselves.

In advocating such ideas that defended the liberty of the black author, Hughes turned a beacon to youthful writers who additionally claimed their proper to discover and exploit supposedly degraded points of black folks. He endowed the motion with a manifesto, skilfully arguing the need of racial pleasure and inventive independence on this most memorable essay.

In 1926 Hughes returned to the traditionally black Lincoln College in Pennsylvania, the place he continued to publish poetry, quick tales and essays in mainstream and black-oriented magazines

In 1927, along with Zora Neal Hurston and different writers, he based the literary journal Fireplace, which targeted on African-American tradition and aimed toward destroying the older types of black literature. The corporate itself was quick lived. It was set on hearth together with its editorial places of work.

Then a 70-year-old rich white patron entered his life. Charlotte Osgood Mason, who directed just about each facet of Hughes' life and artwork. Her passionate perception in parapsychology, instinct, and widespread tradition helped to supervise the writing of Hughes' novel: not with out Lauqhter drawing his youth in Kansas to painting the lifetime of a delicate black youngster, Sandy, in a proxy grew up. Center class. Midwest African American.

Hughes relationship with Mason resulted in 1930 with an explosive finish. Honda's cash was damage and confused by Mason's rejection of a prize to get well for a number of weeks in Haiti. From the extraordinary private misfortune and despair that the break had plunged him into.

Again within the US, Hughes turned sharp left. His verses and essays have now been printed in New Lots, a journal managed by the Communist Occasion. Later this 12 months he began touring.

The renaissance, lengthy since over, was changed for Hughes by a way of the necessity for a political wrestle and an artwork that mirrored this radical strategy. However his profession, in contrast to others at the moment, simply survived the top of this motion. He at all times produced his artwork in accordance together with his self-image as a completely skilled author. Then he printed his first collections, typically bitter and even embittering The Methods of White People.

Hughes's essential concern now was the theater. Mulatto, his drama of race-mixing and the South, was the longest-running play by an African American on Broadway till Lorraine Hansberry's A Raisin within the Solar within the 1960s. His dramas - comedies and ramen of the native black American life - had been widespread to a big extent additionally with the black public. Utilizing improvements similar to theater basically, Hughes known as on audiences to anticipate the work of later avant-garde playwrights similar to Amiri Baraka and Sonia Sanchez. In his drama, Hughes combines city dialogue, vernacular, and a thematic emphasis on the dignity and power of black People.

Hughes wrote different performs, together with comedies similar to Little Ham (1936) and a historic drama, Emperor of Haiti (1936), most of which had solely modest successes. In 1937 he spent a number of months in Europe, together with an extended keep in besieged Madrid. In 1938, he returned residence to discovered the Harlem Suitcase Theater, which staged his agitprop drama "Don't need to be free". With a few of his poems he energetically combined black nationalism, blues and socialist admonition. In the identical 12 months, a socialist group printed a booklet of his radical verse, "A New Tune."

With the start of the Second World Conflict, Hughes returned to the political middle. The Large Sea, his first quantity of autobiographical work, together with his memorable Renaissance portrait and his African travels, written in an episodic, barely comical type, with out his leftist sympathies being nearly as good as talked about.

In his e-book on Shakespeare in Harlem (1942) he sang the blues once more. Alternatively, this assortment, like one other, Jim Crows Final Stand (1943), attacked racial segregation.

In poetry he revived his curiosity in a few of his historic themes and types, as in Shakespeare in Harlem (1942). Within the south and west he introduced folks poetry. He learn his poems in church buildings and in faculties. He then sailed from New York to the Soviet Union. He belonged to a bunch of younger African People who had been invited to a film about American race relations.

This filmmaker venture was unsuccessful however essential to bettering his quick tales. Whereas in Moscow, he was impressed by the similarities between the character of D.H. Lawrence in a canopy story from his assortment The Pretty Girl and Mrs. Osgood Mason. Hughes was overwhelmed by the ability of Lawrence's tales and commenced to jot down quick tales of him. When he returned to the US in 1933 he had bought three tales and began compiling his first assortment.

Maybe his greatest literary achievement throughout the struggle was writing a weekly column within the Chicago Defender from 1942 to 1952. The spotlight was an unconventional Harlem character named Jesse B. Semple or Easy and his trade with a staunch narrator in a neighborhood bar, the place Easy commented on numerous matters, however most of all on race and racism. Easy made Hughes essentially the most well-known and widespread fictional creation. and one of many freshest, most intriguing, and persevering Negro characters in American fiction Jesse B Easy is a Harlem-Everyman whose comedian method has barely obscured among the critical points that Hughes addressed when he wrote Easy & # 39; heroic acts in The time period "clever idiot" describes expertise and uneducated insights seize the frustrations of being black in America. His sincere and simple eye sees by means of the superficiality, hypocrisy and deception of white and black People alike. From his stool within the Paddy's bar in a pleasant English commentary: Easy feedback clever and witty about many issues, however primarily in regards to the breed and the ladies.

His bebop-shaped poem Montage of a Dream Deferred (1991) tasks a altering Harlem, fertile with humanity, however in decline. The drastically deteriorated state of Harlem within the 1950s is in distinction to the Harlem of the 20s. The exuberance of nightlife and the vitality of the cultural renaissance are over. An city ghetto tormented by poverty and crime has taken its place. A rhythm change corresponds to the change of tone. The light patterns and mild melancholy of blues music are changed by the abrupt, fragmented construction of postwar jazz and bebop. Hughes was attentive to what was occurring within the African-American world and what was coming. Because of this, this quantity of poetry mirrored the brand new and comparatively new bebop jazz rhythms that emphasised the dissonance. They thus mirrored the brand new pressures that burdened the black communities within the cities of the north.

Hughes lived quite a lot of his life in basements and attics, bringing with it plenty of realism and humanity, particularly his quick tales. So he stayed near his broad viewers as he figuratively moved by means of the basements of the world the place his life is most dense and the place unusual folks have issue discovering their means. Similtaneously writing in attics, he rose to the lengthy perspective that enabled him to radiate a humanizing, beautifying, however nonetheless true mild on what he noticed.

Hughes's quick tales replicate his complete objective as a author. His artwork was aimed toward deciphering "the fantastic thing about his personal folks," which he believed taught both to be unseen or to not be proud. In all his tales, his humanity, his devoted and inventive representations of race and tradition nationwide reality - his profitable mediation between the beauties and the horrors of life round him shine. Sure matters, technical excellence or social insights are rising.

For instance, "Slave within the Block" reveals a easy however vivid story of the shortage of respect and even human communication between negroes and the upcoming and beauty whites.

Hughes additionally took the time to jot down for kids who produced the profitable Popo and Fifina (1932), a narrative that starred with Arna Bontemps in Haiti. He finally printed a dozen youngsters's books on matters similar to jazz, Africa and the West Indies. Happy with his versatility, he additionally wrote a commissioned historical past of the NAACP and the textual content of a much-vaunted graphic story of Black America's The Candy Flypaper of Life (1955), through which he expertly judged pictures of Harlem by Roy DeCarava, mastered by Grasp , exploded reviewers, confirming Hughes popularity for unsurpassed mastery of the nuances of black city tradition.

Hughes was continually harassed by his relations with the left. In useless he protested that he had by no means been a communist who had damaged all connections. In 1953, he was publicly humiliated by Senator Joseph McCarthy when he was pressured to seem in Washington DC and formally testify his insurance policies. Hughes denied that he had ever been a Communist, however acknowledged that a few of his radical verses had been ill-advised.

Hughes' profession barely suffered. Inside a short while McCarthy himself was discredited. Hughes now wrote extensively in I'm wondering how I stroll (1956), his a lot admired second quantity of autobiography. over his years within the Soviet Union. He turned rich, although he at all times needed to work laborious for his prosperity. Within the 1950s he turned to the musical stage. He tried to repeat his nice success of the 1940s when Kurt Weill and Elmer Rice had chosen him as a lyricist for his or her avenue scene (1947). This manufacturing was celebrated as a breakthrough within the growth of American opera; For Hughes ended the seemingly infinite cycle of poverty through which he had been trapped. He purchased a home in Harlem.

On the finish of his life, Hughes was virtually universally acknowledged as essentially the most consultant author within the historical past of African-American literature, and doubtless essentially the most primitive of all black American poets. So he turned the well known "Poet Laureate" of the Negro Race!

Based on Arnold Rampersad, an authority of Hughes:

A lot of his works celebrated the sweetness and dignity and humanity of black People. Not like different authors, Hughes loved the seemingly excessive esteem of his major viewers, the African American. His poetry, with its authentic jazz and blues affect and robust democratic dedication, is nearly actually essentially the most influential particular person written by an individual of African descent on this century. A few of his poems; "Mom to Son" are digital hymns of black American life and aspiration. Solely by means of his performs he was capable of safe a spot in African American literary historical past. His character Easy is essentially the most memorable particular person determine that emerged from black journalism. "The Negro artist and the racial mountain" is timeless, "it appears to be an expression of a continuing dilemma going through the younger black artist caught between the black and white forces"

Free of the examples of Carl Sandburg's free verse, Hughes's poetry has at all times sought out the utmost directness and ease. On this sense, the notion that he has virtually by no means revised his work and the way romantic poets work, believing and demonstrating that poetry is a "spontaneous abundance of feelings".

Like Wugh Whitman, Hughes' nice poetic forefather of America's poetry, Hughes believed within the poetry of emotion, within the energy of concepts and emotions that went past the technical craft. Hughes by no means needed to be a author who rigorously fashioned rhymes and stanzas, shedding the emotional coronary heart of what he had got down to do.

His poems, with the unmistakable diction and cadenzas of Negro idioms in easy stanza patterns and strict rhyming schemes derived from blues songs, allowed him to seize the ambiance of the environment and the rhythms of jazz music.

He primarily wrote in two modes / instructions:

(i) texts about black life utilizing rhythms and renouncing jazz and

Blues.

(ii) Poems from racial protest

Exploring the boundaries between black and white America. This contributes to the strengthening of black consciousness and racial pleasure, even over the heritage of the Harlem Renaissance for its most militant a long time. Whereas they by no means refuse to cooperate with the white group, the poems that protest towards white racism are boldly direct.

In "The Negro speaks of Rivers," the easy direct and free verse makes it clear that Africa's dusky rivers circulate concurrently with the poet's soul, whereas drawing non secular power and particular person id from the collective expertise of his ancestors. The poem is, based on Rampersad, "paying homage to the syncopated impression the captive Africans introduced with them," which discovered its first expression right here "within the clapping of palms, footsteps, drumbeat rhythms of the human coronary heart (4 - 5), is as outdated because the world. "

Hughes is best recognized for his dealing with of the chances of African-American experiences and identities. Like Walt Whitman, he has created a character that speaks greater than he does. His voice in "Me, too" absorbs, for instance, the illustration of a complete race in his central consciousness as he complains:

I additionally sing America

I'm the darker brother.

I'm additionally America.

The "darker brother" celebrating America has a brighter future when it's now not backed by "society." The poem is attribute of Hughes' perception within the racial consciousness of African People, a consciousness that displays their integrity and wonder, and on the identical time calls for respect and acceptance from others, particularly when: No person / I dare to say to myself to eat within the kitchen ,

This cussed resistance and optimism in coping with adversity was what Hughes' life targeted on. Consequently, regardless of the obstacles that confronted him, he was capable of survive and obtain one thing. as Rampersad confirms:.

"Toughness was a key function of Hughes' life. As a result of his life was laborious. He actually knew poverty and humiliation within the palms of individuals with way more energy and cash than he, and little respect for writers, particularly poets. Regardless of all his poverty and ache, Hughes remained on a secure keel. He was a gentleman, in some ways a delicate man who was sympathetic and tender, however mainly persistent.

Hughes's poetry reveals his heartfelt urge for food for all humanity, his insistence on justice for all, and his perception within the transcendental prospects of pleasure and hope that create area for everybody, as he needs it in "me too" America's desk.

This deep love for the entire of humanity could be present in considered one of his poems: "My folks", of which a number of strains have already been talked about:

The night time is gorgeous,

so the faces of my folks,

the celebrities are lovely,

so the eyes of my folks

Good is the solar

Stunning are additionally the souls of my folks

Arnold Rampersad's final phrase about Hughes's humanity is rooted in three important qualities: his tenderness; Generosity and his humor.

Hughes was additionally tender. He was a person who cherished and cherished different folks. It was very laborious to seek out somebody who had recognized him and would say one thing ugly about him. Individuals who knew him might bear in mind one thing he didn't like. Clearly, he radiated pleasure and humanity and so he was remembered after his loss of life.

He cherished the corporate of individuals. He needed to have folks round. He would possibly want her to counteract the important loneliness he had early on in his coronary heart and from which he made his literary artwork.

Hughes was a person of nice generosity. He was beneficiant to the younger and poor, the needy; He was even beneficiant to his rival. He generously made a mistake and gave to those that didn't at all times deserve his kindness. Nevertheless, he was keen to threat ingratitude to assist youthful artists and younger folks basically.

Hughes was a person of laughter, although his laughter virtually at all times rose within the presence of tears or the specter of tears. The titles of his first novel Not with out laughter and a set of tales that snicker to maintain you from crying. darauf hinweisen Im Wesentlichen glaubte er, dass das Leben vor ihm stehen muss - mit dem Wissen um seine unausweichliche Einsamkeit und seinen Schmerz, aber auch mit einem Bewusstsein für die Therapie des Lachens, mit der wir den Menschen angesichts der Umstände durchsetzen. Wir müssen uns an die Menschen wenden, und man sollte nicht nur eine erstaunliche Toleranz gegenüber den Leiden des Lebens haben, sondern auch den glücklichen Aspekt des Lebens überschwänglich vervollständigen.

Seinem Sinn für Humor wird erneut ein Schriftsteller aus Afrika zugeschrieben, der wie Hughes auch mit der Bekämpfung rassistischer Diskriminierung und Benachteiligung, Ezekiel Mphahlele, konfrontiert struggle.

Hier ist ein Mann mit grenzenloser Lebensfreude ... Er hat einen unwiderstehlichen Sinn für Humor, und ihn zu treffen heißt, sich mit der Essenz menschlicher Güte zu konfrontieren. Trotz seines literarischen Erfolgs hat er sich den Respekt junger Negerautoren verdient, die ihn niemals unwillig finden wollen. Und doch ist er nicht herablassend. Im Gegensatz zu den meisten Negern, die berühmt oder wohlhabend werden und in erstklassige Wohngebiete ziehen, lebt er weiterhin in Harlem, einem sinnlosen Negro-Ghetto, in einem Haus, das er mit Geld gekauft hat, das er als Lyriker für das Broadway-Musical Avenue Scene verdient hat .

Bei der Erklärung und Veranschaulichung des Zustands der Neger in Amerika, wie es seine erklärte Berufung struggle, eroberte Hughes ihre Freuden und die verschleierte Müdigkeit ihres Lebens, die Monotonie ihrer Jobs und die verschleierte Müdigkeit ihrer Lieder. Dies gelang ihm in Gedichten, die nicht nur wegen ihrer Direktheit und Einfachheit, sondern auch wegen ihrer Wirtschaftlichkeit, Klarheit und Witz bemerkenswert waren. Ob er Gedichte aus rassistischen Protesten wie "Harlem" und "Ballad of the Landlord" schrieb, oder Gedichte aus rassischen Bestätigungen wie "Mom to Son" und "Die Neger sprechen von Flüssen", Hughes fand Sprache und Formen, die er nicht ausdrücken konnte nur der Schmerz des städtischen Lebens, aber auch seine herrliche Vitalität.

Additional studying:

Gates, Henry, Louis und Mc Kay Nellie, Y. (Gen. Ed) The Norton

Anthologie der afroamerikanischen Literatur, N.W. Norton & Co; New York und London 1997

Hughes, Langston, "Der Negerkünstler und der rassische Berg" 1926. Rpt

in Nathan Huggins Hrsg. Stimmen aus dem Harlem Renaissance Oxford

College Press, New York, 1976

Mphahlele, Ezekiel, "Langston Hughes" in Introduction to African

Literatur (Hrsg.) Ulli Beier, Longman, London 1967

Rampersad, Arnold, Das Leben von Langston Hughes Vol. 1 & 11 Oxford

College Press, N. York, 1986

Trotman, James, Langston Hughes: Der Mann, seine Kunst und seine

Fortwährender Einfluss Garland Publishing Inc. N.

York & London 1995

Schwarze Literaturkritik

Der Oxford-Begleiter der afroamerikanischen Literatur., Oxford College Press, 1997

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