Historical past of Finish Consumer Programming


Within the 1960s, the programming language Dartmouth BASIC was developed [7] was designed and carried out at Dartmouth School by John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz. Over time, BASIC has turn out to be a preferred language for dwelling customers, introducing many individuals to programming as a interest or a profession. Lots of the fashionable ideas of pc graphics, dynamic objects and object-oriented programming had been created in 1963 by Ivan Sutherland within the Sketchpad as a prototype [13][14], Within the mid-1960s, Seymour Papert, a mathematician who had labored at Piaget in Geneva, got here to the US, the place he co-founded the MIT Synthetic Intelligence Laboratory with Marvin Minsky. Papert labored with the group of Bolt, Beranek, and Newman, led by Wallace Feurzeig, who created the primary model of Emblem [25] in 1967. Within the late sixties Alan Kay [2][3][17] He used the time period "private pc" and created a prototype of an idea, the FLEX Machine. He additionally deliberate a "Dynabook" machine. The sketches for this look are similar to the laptop computer computer systems of current years. The simula [28] The language was developed by Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard and included object-oriented ideas. Douglas Engelbert labored as a part of the Increase on a mission to extend the human mind [8] Mission he demonstrates hypertext and video conferencing.


Alan Kay joined the Xerox Palo Alto Analysis Heart (PARC) [17][19] California in 1971. In the course of the seventies, the Kay led PARC Group an built-in programming language and programming atmosphere referred to as Smalltalk [10], Within the early seventies, the Alto Private Laptop was developed at PARC. Lastly, The Alto featured the world's first WYSIWYG editor, "What-You-See-Is-What-You-Get," a industrial mouse for enter, a graphical person interface (GUI) and bitmap show, in addition to menus and icons related to an area community. The Alto shaped the premise for the Xerox STAR 8010 info system. There was nonetheless a necessity to seek out frequent use for a private pc that will enhance the demand for it. In 1978, Harvard Enterprise Faculty scholar Daniel Bricklin got here up with the concept of ​​an interactive seen calculator. Bricklin and Bob Frankston then invented the software program program VisiCalc [1], VisiCalc was a spreadsheet, and the primary "killer" software for private computer systems, as this software is a justification for utilizing private computer systems as a productive software.


Within the 1980s, the possession of PCs turned extra widespread and lots of dwelling customers programmed with BASIC. Within the early 1980s, IBM developed the primary private pc constructed from customary components (referred to as open structure). [15], These included a command-line working system written by Microsoft and the Microsoft BASIC programming language. Apple has developed the GUI for Lisa [5] that later turned the Macintosh (Mac). The IBM PC turned the preferred for enterprise functions, whereas the Apple Mac was broadly used for desktop publishing.


Finish-user programming analysis has continued to at the present time. Analysis within the area of visible programming continued [9] e.g. Alice [4], Programming by instance [2][21]Programming with automated assist [20]and programming in pure language [27], Squeak and croquet[6] have developed from the early work in Smalltalk.

Tim Berners-Lee [23] has developed HyperText Markup Language (HTML) and has been concerned within the World Broad Internet Consortium (W3C) [29] in creating customary base languages ​​for the net. This has promoted the expansion of the "Semantic Internet" [11] This can enable each individuals and computer systems to look and work together with pages extra, thus fostering the event of interactive web sites and communities.


Latest, present, and future analysis could enable the usage of semantic internet applied sciences (developed from HTML by Tim Berners-Lee) [23] and others) to allow end-user programming. This connection between analysis and expertise is illustrated on the homepage of Henry Lieberman [12] which has explanations for each areas of analysis. Examples of this merger are Protégé [22], Jena [16], TopBraid composer [24]and OpenCyc [18], Details about these applied sciences might be discovered on my semantic site - http://www.cems.uwe.ac.uk/amrc/seeds/PeterHale/RDF/RDF.htm. A associated growth is that of Internet 2.0. Visible growth environments based mostly on AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) [26] The purpose is to breed the performance of Workplace instruments akin to Excel (which are sometimes used because the programming atmosphere for finish customers) on the Internet. Info on Ajax and Internet 2.Zero might be discovered on my Ajax / web2.Zero web page - http://www.cems.uwe.ac.uk/amrc/seeds/Ajax/ajax.htm.


1. A Temporary Historical past of Spreadsheets - http://dssresources.com/historical past/sshistory.html - Sources for the Choice Assist System - by D. J. Energy, Writer, DSSResources.COM.

2. Alan Kay - http://www.acypher.com/wwid/FrontMatter/index.html - Watch what I do - Programming by instance.

3. Alan Kay's ETech 2003 presentation - http://www.lisarein.com/alankay/tour.html - Lisa Rein's tour of Alan Kay's Etech 2003 presentation.

4. Alice v2.0 - http://www.alice.org/ - Discover ways to program interactive 3D graphics.

5. Apple Lisa - http://fp3.antelecom.web/gcifu/applemuseum/lisa2.html - The First Inexpensive GUI - Lisa January 1st-83rd. January-84, Lisa 2 January-84. April 85.

6. Croquet - http://www.opencroquet.org/ - a brand new open supply software program platform for creating multi-user on-line functions with intensive collaboration.

7. Dartmouth BASIC - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dartmouth_BASIC - Wikipedia.

8. The demo - http://sloan.stanford.edu/mousesite/1968Demo.html - Stanford College.

9. Dmoz Open Listing Mission - http://dmoz.org/Computer systems/Programming/Languages/Visible/ - Visible Languages ​​- Reference for Programming Languages ​​- Visible Languages.

10. The Early Historical past of Smalltalk by Alan Kay - http://www.smalltalk.org/smalltalk/TheEarlyHistoryOfSmalltalk_II.html - 1967-69 - The FLEX Engine, a First Strive of an OOP-Based mostly PC - Alan Kay - Smalltalk. org.

11. Fifteen Years Internet - http://information.bbc.co.uk/1/hello/expertise/5243862.stm - Web Timeline - BBC Know-how.

12. Henry Lieberman - http://internet.media.mit.edu/~lieber/ - Analysis Scientist - MIT Media Laboratory.

13. Historical past of HCI - http://www.idemployee.id.tue.nl/g.w.m.rauterberg/shows/HCI-history - Key Techniques, Folks and Concepts - Presentation by Matthias Rauterberg.

14. Historical past of HCI - Sketchpad (1963) - http://www.idemployee.id.tue.nl/g.w.m.rauterberg/shows/HCI-history/sld020.htm - Ivan Sutherland - MIT Lab - Lecture by Matthias Rauterberg.

15. Inventor of the Fashionable Laptop - http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aa031599.htm - The Historical past of IBM PC - Worldwide Enterprise Machines.

16th Jena - [http://jena.hpl.hp.com/juc2006/proceedings.html] - First Consumer Convention in Jena - Proceedings.

17th Kyoto Prize winner 2004 - [http://www.kyotoprize.org/commentary_kay.htm] - Kyoto Prize winner 2004 - Dr. Ing. Alan Curtis Kay (USA, born 1940) - pc scientist, president, analysis institute for views.

18. OpenCyc - http://www.opencyc.org/ - OpenCyc.org - Frequent information base and Commonsense reasoning engine.

19. Palo Alto Analysis Heart (PARC) - Historical past - [http://www.parc.xerox.com/about/history/default.html] - PARC story.

20. The Apprentice Apprentice - http://portal.acm.org/quotation.cfm?id=87912&dl=ACM&coll=GUIDE - The Digital Library of ACM.

21. Programming by instance - http://internet.media.mit.edu/~lieber/PBE/index.html.

22. Protege - http://protege.stanford.edu/ - Protégé House - Ontology Growth Atmosphere.

23. Tim Berners - [http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/Lee] - Tim Berners-Lee.

24. TopBraid - http://www.topbraidcomposer.com/ - Semantic Modeling Toolset - Visible modeling atmosphere.

25. What's a emblem? - http://el.media.mit.edu/Emblem-foundation/emblem/index.html - MIT Emblem Basis, What's a emblem?

26. Wikipedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ajax_%28programming%29 - Ajax (programming).

27. Wikipedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_language_and_computation - Pure language processing.

28. Simula - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simula - Simula.

29. World Broad Internet Consortium (W3C) - http://www.w3.org - Making full use of the Internet ....

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