American Historical past - The Colonial Interval

The next article lists some easy and informative ideas that will help you higher expertise the colonial period.

The colonial period


A lot of the settlers who got here to America within the 17th century have been English, however there have been additionally Dutch, Swedes and Germans within the center area, some French Huguenots in South Carolina and elsewhere, slaves from Africa, primarily within the south, and a distraction from Spaniards, Italians and Portuguese by the colonies.

After 1680, England was now not the principle supply of immigration. Hundreds of refugees fled continental Europe earlier than the struggle. Many left their homeland to flee the poverty brought on by state oppression and absence of land.

By 1690, the American inhabitants had risen to 1 / 4 of 1,000,000. From then on, it doubled each 25 years till it reached greater than 2.5 million in 1775.

Though a household may transfer from Massachusetts to Virginia or from South Carolina to Pennsylvania with out main changes, the variations between colonies have been pronounced. They have been much more in between the three regional colonial teams


New England within the northeast usually has skinny, stony soils, comparatively shallow land and lengthy winters, making it troublesome to dwell off the land. Within the different ventures used the New Englanders water energy and based flour mills and sawmills. Good wooden shares promoted shipbuilding. Glorious ports promoted commerce, and the ocean grew to become a supply of nice wealth. In Massachusetts, the cod business alone shortly offered a basis for prosperity.

Since many of the early settlers lived in villages and cities close to the ports, many New Englanders practiced some form of commerce or enterprise. Widespread pastures and woodlands served the wants of the residents who labored close by small farms. Compactness allowed the village faculty, the village church and the village or city corridor, the place residents met to debate issues of frequent curiosity.

The Massachusetts Bay Colony continued to increase its commerce. By the mid-17th century, it was a fantastic wealth, and Boston grew to become one in every of America's largest ports.

Oak wooden for ships & # 39; Hulls, tall pines for masts and masts, and ship hulls got here from the northeastern woods. Massachusetts Bay skippers constructed their very own ships and sailed them to ports world wide. They laid the inspiration for a enterprise that was to grow to be more and more necessary. By the top of the colonial period, one-third of all British-flagged ships have been inbuilt New England. Fish, ship provides and wooden merchandise drove exports.

New England shippers quickly realized that rum and slaves have been worthwhile items. Some of the entrepreneurial - albeit unappetizing - industrial practices of the time was the so-called "triangular commerce". Merchants and shippers purchased slaves off the coast of Africa for New England and offered the slaves to the West Indies, the place they purchased molasses on the market to native rum producers.


The society within the center colonies was way more numerous, extra cosmopolitan and tolerant than in New England. In some ways, Pennsylvania and Delaware owed their first success to William Penn.

Below his management, Pennsylvania labored easily and really shortly. In 1685, its inhabitants was nearly 9,000. The guts of the colony was Philadelphia, a metropolis that quickly grew to become identified for its huge, tree-shaded streets, important brick and stone homes, and bustling docks. On the finish of the colonial period, nearly a century later, there have been 30,000 folks representing many languages, creeds and professions. Her expertise for a profitable enterprise enterprise made the town a thriving middle of colonial America.

Though the Quakers dominated in Philadelphia, others in Pennsylvania others have been effectively represented. Germans grew to become essentially the most expert farmers within the colony. Additionally necessary have been huts corresponding to weaving, shoemaking, carpentry and different crafts.

Pennsylvania was additionally a very powerful gateway into the New World for the Scottish-Irish international locations that moved to the colony within the early 18th century. "Courageous and unyielding kinds," as a Pennsylvania official known as them, hated the English and have been suspicious of any authorities. The Scottish Irish settled within the hinterland, the place they cleared land and lived from looking and subsistence agriculture.

As combined because the folks of Pennsylvania have been, New York finest confirmed the multilingualism of America. Till 1646, the inhabitants alongside the Hudson River included Dutch, French, Danes, Norwegians, Swedes, English, Scots, Irish, Germans, Poles, Bohemians, Portuguese, and Italians - the forerunners of hundreds of thousands.

For a very long time after the autumn of the New Netherlands and its integration into the British colonial system, the Dutch continued to exert important social and financial affect on the New York area. Its pointed gabled roofs grew to become an integral a part of the town's structure, and its retailers drove Manhattan away from its unique bustling environment.


In contrast to New England and the Center Colonies, the predominantly rural southern settlements have been Virginia, Maryland, North and South Carolina and Georgia.

Within the late seventeenth century, the financial and social buildings of Virginia and Maryland have been primarily based on the good planters and farmers of the peasants. The naval planters, supported by slave laborers, owned many of the political energy and the most effective land. They constructed nice homes, adopted an aristocratic lifestyle and stored in the absolute best contact with the cultural world abroad.

On the similar time, the peasants engaged on smaller tracts of land sat in common assemblies and located their method into political workplace. Their marked independence was a relentless warning to the growers' oligarchy to not intrude an excessive amount of with the rights of free males.

Charleston, South Carolina, grew to become the main port and industrial middle of the South. There, settlers shortly discovered to mix agriculture and commerce, and the market grew to become an necessary supply of wealth. Revenues have been additionally generated in dense forests: wooden, tar and resin from the lengthy deciduous pines offered a number of the finest marine supplies on the earth. Virginia, North and South Carolina additionally produced and exported rice and indigo, a blue dye derived from native vegetation used to color fabric. By 1750, greater than 100,000 folks lived within the two colonies of North and South Carolina.

Within the southernmost colonies, inhabitants development within the hinterland, as elsewhere, had a particular significance. German immigrants and Scottish-Irish residents who have been unwilling to dwell within the unique settlement water settlements with robust English affect pushed inland. Those that couldn't safe a fertile land alongside the coast, or who had exhausted the land they possessed, discovered the hills farther west a wealthy sanctuary. Though their exertions have been loud, troubled settlers stored coming, and within the 1730s they flocked to the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia. Quickly the inside was affected by farms.

The border households lived on the sting of the Indian countryside, constructing huts, clearing the wild and elevating corn and wheat. The lads leather-based leather-based from the pores and skin of deer or sheep, often called deerskin; the ladies's garments she made at dwelling. Their meals consists of recreation, turkey and fish. That they had their very own amusements - nice barbecues, dances, newlywed {couples} catching events, taking pictures competitions, and quilt making competitions. Quilts in the present day stay an American custom.


An necessary issue within the emergence of a strong aristocratic class or gentry class within the colonies was the truth that anybody in a longtime colony may discover a new dwelling on the border. Many times dominant water figures have been obliged to liberalize the coverage, the circumstances for the granting of land allocation and non secular practices by the specter of a mass flight to the border. This motion into the foothills was of nice significance to the way forward for America.

Equally necessary for the long run have been the foundations of American training and tradition constructed through the colonial period. Harvard School was based in 1636 in Cambridge, Massachusetts. On the finish of the century, the School of William and Mary was based in Virginia. Just a few years later, the Collegiate College of Connecticut, which later grew to become Yale School, was chartered. Much more outstanding, nevertheless, was the expansion of a faculty system maintained by state authorities. The puritanical emphasis of studying instantly from the scriptures underlined the significance of literacy.

In 1647, the Massachusetts Bay Colony handed the "ye olde deluder Devil" Act, which offered that each metropolis with greater than 50 households ought to set up a highschool (a Latin faculty to arrange college students). Shortly thereafter, all different colonies in New England besides Rhode Island adopted swimsuit.

The primary immigrants to New England purchased their very own small libraries and continued to import books from London. And as early because the 1880s, the Boston booksellers made a flourishing enterprise with works of classical literature, historical past, politics, philosophy, science, theology, and literature. In 1639, the primary press was put in within the English colonies and the second in North America at Harvard School.

The primary faculty in Pennsylvania was began in 1683. She taught studying, writing and accounting. In a way, every Quaker group offered the elementary training for his or her youngsters. Superior coaching - in classical languages, historical past and literature - has been provided on the Associates Public College, which continues to be run as Philadelphia William Penn Constitution College. The college was free for the poor, however mother and father who may have paid.

In Philadelphia, quite a few non-public non-religious colleges taught languages, math, and science. There have been additionally evening colleges for adults. Ladies weren't fully missed, however their coaching choices have been restricted to coaching in actions that may very well be performed at dwelling. Non-public academics taught the daughters of rich Philadelphiaers in French, music, dancing, portray, singing, grammar, and typically even accounting.

Within the eighteenth century, Pennsylvania's mental and cultural improvement largely mirrored the fictional personalities of two males: James Logan and Benjamin Franklin. Logan was secretary of the colony, and younger Franklin discovered the most recent scientific papers in his lovely library. In 1745, Logan constructed a constructing for his assortment and bequeathed each the town's buildings and books.

Franklin added much more to the mental exercise of Philadelphia. He based a debating membership that grew to become the embryo of the American Philosophical Society. His efforts additionally led to the invention of a public academy, which later developed into the College of Pennsylvania. He was the engine behind the setup of a subscription library, which he known as the "mom of all North American subscription libraries."

Within the southern colonies, rich planters and merchants imported non-public tutors from Eire or Scotland to show their youngsters. Others despatched their youngsters to highschool in England. With these different choices, the higher lessons of tidal water had no real interest in supporting public training. As well as, the unfold of farms and plantations made the formation of group colleges troublesome. In Virginia there have been some free colleges without spending a dime; The Syms College was based in 1647 and the Eaton College was based in 1659.

Nonetheless, the need to study didn't cease on the borders of established communities. On the frontier, the Scottish-Irish, although residing in primitive hovels, have been agency believers in scholarship, and made nice efforts to lure discovered ministers into their settlements.

Literary manufacturing within the colonies was largely tied to New England. Right here consideration targeted on spiritual matters. Sermons have been the commonest press merchandise. A well-known Puritan minister, the Reverend Cotton Mather, wrote about 400 works. His masterpiece, Magnalia Christi Americana, offered the pageant of the historical past of New England. The preferred piece of the day, nevertheless, was Reverend Michael Wigglesworth's lengthy poem, "The Day of Doom," wherein the final sentence was frighteningly described.

In 1704, Cambridge, Massachusetts, based the colonies & # 39; first profitable newspaper. Round 1745, 22 newspapers have been printed within the colonies.

How are you going to restrict studying extra? The subsequent part might comprise a little bit of knowledge that modifications all the pieces.

In New York, the case of Johann Peter Zenger, begun in 1733 by the New York Weekly Journal, made the opposition to the federal government an necessary step in establishing the precept of press freedom. After two years of publication, the colonial governor may now not tolerate Zenger's satirical barbs and despatched him to jail for convicted slander. Zenger continued to be out of jail throughout his nine-month trial, which sparked a lot curiosity within the colonies. Andrew Hamilton, the outstanding lawyer defending Zenger, argued that Zenger's allegations have been true and due to this fact not defamatory. The jury returned the decision as not responsible, and Zenger was launched.

The prosperity of the cities, which precipitated fears that the satan was tempting society to achieve secular positive factors, triggered a spiritual response within the 1730s that grew to become often called the Nice Awakening. His inspiration got here from two sources: George Whitefield, a Wesleyan who got here from England in 1739, and Jonathan Edwards, who initially served on the Congregational Church in Northampton, Massachusetts.

Whitefield started a spiritual revival in Philadelphia after which moved on to New England. With histrionics, gestures and emotional rhetoric he enthused as much as 20,000 folks concurrently. Spiritual riots broke by New England and the Center Colonies when ministers left established church buildings to evangelise revival.

Amongst those that have been influenced by Whitefield was Edwards, and the Nice Awakening reached its climax in 1741 along with his sermon "sinners within the arms of an offended god." Edwards didn't have interaction in performs, however delivered his sermons in a peaceful, considerate method. He emphasised that the established church buildings have been shopping for with a view to impoverish Christianity in its emotional content material. His Opus Magnum of Freedom of Will (1754) tried to reconcile Calvinism with the Enlightenment.

The Nice Awakening courageous ascent to evangelical denominations and the spirit of revivalism that continues to play an necessary position in US spiritual and cultural life. It weakened the standing of the established clergy and led the devoted to depend on their very own conscience. Maybe most significantly, this led to the unfold of sects and denominations, which in flip promoted the overall acceptance of the precept of non secular tolerance.


Hanging in all colonial improvement phases was the shortage of affect of the management by the English authorities. All colonies, except for Georgia, emerged as a shareholder firm or as feudal property rights from charters donated by the Crown. The truth that the king had transferred his instant sovereignty over the settlements of the New World to firms and homeowners didn't imply, after all, that the colonists in America weren't unnecessarily free from exterior. For instance, beneath the phrases of the Virginia Firm's statutes, full state authority has been transferred to the corporate itself. Nonetheless, the crown anticipated that the corporate can be primarily based in England. The inhabitants of Virginia would due to this fact don't have any extra votes of their authorities than if the king himself had stored absolute management.

The colonies had by no means thought-about themselves submissive. Slightly, they thought-about themselves primarily as Commonwealths or States, very like England itself, and had solely a free reference to the London authorities. In a technique or one other, the unique rule is rejected from the skin. The colonists - heirs of the traditions of the lengthy wrestle of the English for political freedom - integrated the ideas of freedom into the primary constitution of Virginia. It stipulated that English colonists ought to train all liberties, franchises and freedoms "as if they'd remained on this kingdom of England." So you must take pleasure in the advantages of Magna Carta and customary legislation. In 1618, the Virginia Firm gave directions to its appointed governor, which offered that free plantation residents ought to elect representatives to satisfy with the governor and a council of appointments to concern ordinances for the good thing about the colony.

These measures proved to be one of the crucial far-reaching in your entire colonial period. From then on it was well known that the colonists had the proper to take part in their very own authorities. Usually, the King has offered for future grants within the Constitution that the free males of the colony ought to have a voice within the laws that issues them. For instance, charters to Calverts, Maryland, William Penn, Pennsylvania, homeowners in North and South Carolina, and homeowners in New Jersey, signed that the laws was to be adopted with the approval of the Freemakers.

In New England, over a few years, there was even larger self-government than within the different colonies. Aboard the Mayflower, pilgrims adopted an instrument for the federal government, the Mayflower Compact, to "unify right into a civil company coverage to enhance our order and preservation [to] Structure, structure and framework for such equitable and equal legal guidelines, ordinances, acts, constitutions and workplaces ... as it's thought-about and acceptable for the collective good of the colony ... "

Though there was no authorized foundation for pilgrims to arrange a system of self-government, the lawsuit was not challenged, and the Plymouth settlers had been in a position for a few years beneath the Pact to deal with their very own affairs with out exterior interference.

The same scenario developed within the Massachusetts Bay Firm, which had the proper to manipulate itself. The complete authority was due to this fact within the arms of people that lived within the colony. At first, a few dozen unique members of the corporate who had come to America tried to autograph. Nonetheless, the opposite colonists quickly demanded a voice in public affairs, declaring that the refusal would result in mass migration.

Confronted with this menace, the corporate's members gave in and the federal government's management went to the elected representatives. Because of this, different colonies in New England - corresponding to Connecticut and Rhode Island - succeeded in governing themselves by merely claiming that they have been exterior any state authority, after which their very own political system modeled on the pilgrims in Construct Plymouth.

In solely two instances the self-determination was omitted. These have been New York, which was granted to Charles II's brother, the Duke of York (who later grew to become King James II); and Georgia granted to a gaggle of "trustees". In each instances, the provisions on governance have been short-lived, because the colonists insistently demanded legislative illustration, and the authorities quickly gave in.

Most colonies often grew to become royal colonies, however by the mid-17th century, the English have been too distracted by the Civil Struggle (1642-1649) and by Oliver Cromwell's puritanical Commonwealth and Protectorate to pursue efficient colonial coverage. After the restoration of Charles II and the Stuart dynasty in 1660, England had extra alternative to go to the colonial administration. Nonetheless, it was inefficient and lacked a coherent plan, and the colonies have been largely left to their very own assets.

The seclusion of an enormous ocean additionally made controlling the colonies troublesome. Added to this was the character of life in early America. From international locations bounded in area and affected by populated cities, the settlers had come to a land of seemingly infinite attain. On such a continent, pure circumstances fostered harsh individualism as folks grew to become accustomed to creating their very own selections. The federal government was gradual to enter the hinterland and the anarchy usually dominated the border.

The takeover of self-government within the colonies, nevertheless, was not fully unchallenged. Within the 1870s, the Lords of Commerce and Plantations, a royal committee that wished to implement the colonial buying and selling system, arrange the Constitution in Massachusetts Bay as a result of the colony resisted the federal government's financial coverage. In 1685, James II permitted a proposal to ascertain a Dominion of New England and place colonies south of New Jersey beneath his jurisdiction, thereby tightening management of the crown throughout the area. A royal governor, Sir Edmund Andros, levied taxes by order of the chief, carried out numerous different arduous measures, and condemned those that opposed them.

When the information of the Superb Revolution (1688-1689), James II's deposit reached Boston, the inhabitants rebelled and imprisoned Andros. Below a brand new constitution, Massachusetts and Plymouth have been united in 1691 for the primary time because the royal colony of Massachusetts Bay. The opposite colonies that got here beneath the rule of New England have been shortly renewed by their earlier governments.

The fantastic revolution had different constructive results on the colonies. The Invoice of Rights and Tolerance Legislation of 1689 affirmed spiritual freedom for Christians and compelled the crown boundaries. Equally necessary, John Locke's Second Treatise on Authorities (1690) established a governmental idea primarily based not on divine proper however on treaty, claiming that the folks, endowed with pure rights to life, liberty, and property, transcend the proper has the proper to insurgent when governments have violated these pure rights.

Colonial coverage within the early 18th century was just like English within the 17th century. The Superb Revolution reaffirmed the supremacy of Parliament, however colonial leaders suggested that they need to train energy within the colonies that the king had misplaced in England. The colonial assemblies, conscious of occasions in England, tried to say their "rights" and "freedoms." Originally of the eighteenth century, colonial legislatures had two necessary powers just like these of the English Parliament: the proper to vote on taxes and expenditures and the proper to legislate, relatively than responding solely to proposals from the governor.

Lawmakers used these rights to assessment the ability of the royal rulers and take different measures to increase their energy and affect. The recurring clashes between the governor and the meeting regularly labored to sensitize the colonists to the divergence between American and British pursuits. In lots of instances, the royal authorities have failed to grasp the significance of the actions of the colonial assemblies and have merely uncared for them. These acts, nevertheless, established precedents and rules and finally grew to become a part of the "structure" of the colonies.

On this method, the colonial legislators have justified the proper to self-government. Over time, the middle of colonial administration shifted from London to provincial capitals.


Within the 18th century, France and Nice Britain led a collection of wars in Europe and the Caribbean at a number of intervals. Though Britain gained sure advantages, particularly on the sugar-rich Caribbean islands, battles have been usually undecided, and France remained in a powerful place in North America in the beginning of the Seven Years Struggle in 1754.

At the moment, France had established a powerful relationship with numerous Indian tribes in Canada and alongside the Nice Lakes, taking possession of the Mississippi River and increasing a big, crescent-shaped empire from Quebec to New Orleans with a collection of forts and buying and selling facilities. So the British have been restricted to the slim belt east of the Appalachians. The French revolutionized not solely the British Empire, but additionally the American colonists themselves, as a result of with the Mississippi Valley, France was in a position to prohibit its enlargement to the west.

An armed conflict happened in 1754 at Fort Duquesne, the positioning of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, between a gaggle of French regulars and Virginia militia beneath the command of 22-year-old George Washington, a Virginia planter and surveyor.

In London, the Chamber tried to take care of the battle by calling a gathering with representatives from New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland and the New England colonies. From June 19 to July 10, the Albany Congress in Albany, New York, met with the Iroquois to enhance relations with them and safe their loyalty to the British.

The delegates additionally declared an affiliation of American colonies "completely crucial for his or her preservation" and adopted the Union's Albany Plan. The plan drawn up by Benjamin Franklin envisaged {that a} president appointed by the king would act with a big delegate council elected by the assemblies, with every colony represented in proportion to their monetary contributions to the ministry of finance. This physique can be answerable for protection, Indian relations, commerce and settlement of the West and the ability to lift taxes. However not one of the colonies accepted Franklin's plan as a result of nobody wished both to surrender management or management over the event of Western international locations to a government.

England's superior strategic place and her competent management have been extraordinarily happy with the victory within the Seven Years & # 39; Struggle, of which solely a small half was cooked within the Western Hemisphere.

Within the Treaty of Paris, signed in 1763, France transferred all of Canada, the Nice Lakes and the higher Mississippi Valley to the British. The dream of a French empire in North America was over. After defeating France, Britain now confronted an issue that had beforehand been uncared for - the federal government of its empire. It was important that London arrange its now in depth belongings to facilitate the protection, to reconcile the diverging pursuits of various areas and peoples, and even to raised distribute the prices of the imperial administration.

In North America alone, British territories greater than doubled. Alongside the slim strip of shoreline alongside the Atlantic coast have been the huge expanses of Canada and the territory between the Mississippi River and the Allegheny Mountains, an empire in itself. A predominantly Protestant and English inhabitants included French-speaking Catholics from Quebec and numerous partially Christianized Indians. The protection and administration of the brand new territories and the previous territories would require monumental sums of cash and extra personnel. The previous colonial system was clearly not adequate for these duties.


In 1692, a gaggle of teenaged women in Salem Village, Massachusetts, skilled unusual seizures after being instructed by a West Indian slave. When questioned, they accused a number of girls of being witches who tortured them. The residents have been appalled, however not stunned: the assumption in witchcraft was widespread in America and Europe of the 17th century.

What occurred subsequent, regardless of a single incident in American historical past, supplies a residing window into the social and psychological world of Puritan New England. Beamte der Stadt berief ein Gericht ein, um die Anklagen wegen Hexerei zu hören, und verurteilten und exekutierten eine Taverne, Bridget Bishop. Innerhalb eines Monats wurden fünf andere Frauen geküsst und aufgehängt.

Trotzdem ist die Hysterie groß, zum großen Teil, weil das Gericht Zeugen erlaubte zu bezeugen, dass sie den Angeklagten als Geister oder in Visionen gesehen hatten. Solche "spektralen Beweise" waren naturgemäß besonders gefährlich, da sie entweder überprüft oder objektiv geprüft werden konnten. Bis zum Herbst 1692 waren mehr als 20 Opfer, darunter mehrere Männer, hingerichtet worden, und mehr als 100 weitere waren im Gefängnis - darunter auch einige der prominentesten Bürger der Stadt. Nun aber drohte die Hysterie, sich über Salem hinaus auszubreiten, und Minister durch die Kolonie forderten ein Ende der Gerichtsverfahren. Der Gouverneur der Kolonie stimmte zu und wies das Gericht ab. Die noch im Gefängnis befindlichen Personen wurden später freigesprochen oder geahndet.

Die Salem-Hexenprozesse haben die Amerikaner schon lange fasziniert. In psychologischer Hinsicht sind sich die meisten Historiker einig, dass das Dorf Salem 1692 von einer Artwork öffentlicher Hysterie bestimmt wurde, die von einem echten Glauben an die Existenz der Hexerei angeheizt wurde. Sie weisen darauf hin, dass, obwohl einige der Mädchen möglicherweise gespielt haben, viele verantwortliche Erwachsene in der Raserei ebenfalls aufgekocht wurden.

Noch aufschlussreicher ist eine genauere Analyse der Identitäten der Angeklagten und der Ankläger. Wie viele andere Kolonialherren der damaligen Zeit durchlief Salem Village einen wirtschaftlichen und politischen Übergang von einer großen, von Puritanern beherrschten Landgemeinschaft zu einer kommerzielleren, säkularen Gesellschaft. Viele der Ankläger waren Vertreter einer traditionellen Lebensweise, die an die Landwirtschaft und die Kirche gebunden struggle, während einige der angeklagten Hexen Mitglieder der aufstrebenden Handelsklasse der kleinen Ladenbesitzer und Handwerker waren. Salems dunkler Kampf um soziale und politische Macht zwischen älteren traditionellen Gruppen und einer neueren kommerziellen Klasse wurde in der amerikanischen Geschichte in Gemeinschaften wiederholt. Aber es struggle ein bizarrer und tödlicher Umweg, als seine Bürger von der Überzeugung mitgerissen wurden, der Teufel sei in ihren Häusern los.

Die Salem-Hexenprozesse dienen auch als dramatische Parabel über die tödlichen Folgen sensationeller, aber falscher Anschuldigungen. Eine häufige Bezeichnung in der politischen Debatte für falsche Anschuldigungen gegen eine große Anzahl von Menschen ist "Hexenjagd".

Es schadet nie, mit dem neuesten Stand der Kolonialzeit intestine informiert zu sein. Vergleichen Sie das, was Sie hier gelernt haben, mit zukünftigen Artikeln, damit Sie auf Änderungen im Bereich der Kolonialzeit aufmerksam bleiben können.

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